Asbestos is a technical name for minerals, which have a fibrous form, specific physical properties, and which are often used in industrial processes.

Synonyms/Trade Names:

Usually, this group of “minerals” includes: chrysotile (or white asbestos ) and amphibole asbestos with: amosite (or brown asbestos ), anthophyllite, crocidolite (or blue asbestos ), tremolite, and actinolite . Beside these common minerals other fibrous and -less frequentlycrystalline minerals belonging to the amphibole minerals (see there) are called asbestos . The socalled asbestiform fibers have a fibrous form, but they differ in their chemical composition, and they do not belong to the chrysotile or the amphibole mineral group (e.g.: zeolites). The trade names include: Aboglas, Accobest, Accobest AN-8012, Acoa, Aertite, AFD, Aircel, Akoustikos Felt, Aland, Albaseal, Aluma-Seal, Alum-I-Flex, Amberlite, Amerbestos, American Colonial, Anti-Sweat, Apac, Apac Board, Applon C TFE, Applon T TFE, Armaturo Asbestos Tape, Armor Spray, Armor Temp, Armstrong LT Cork Coverings, Asbaltic, Asbestall, Asbestex, Asbestibel, Asbestile, Asbestite, Asbestoboard, Asbestocel, Asbestocite, Asbestogard, Asbestolux, Asbeston, Asbestone Standard 400, Asbestoroc, Asbestos Ebony, AsbestosEbony, Asbestos Fibrated, Asbestos Firetard Jacket, Asbestos Grapevine Finish Felt, Asbestos Liquid, Asbestos Lumniclad, Asbestos Sponge, Asbestos Sponge Felt, Asbestos Roll Fire Felt, Asbestrolan, Ascarite, Atlas, Aubeston, BB, BBA, Bellowseal, Best Felt, Bes-Tos, Bestolite, Bestophalt, Beswick, Black Top Asbestos Jacket, Blastape, Calidria Asbestos, Cal Temp, Caposite, Carbac, Carey, Careybesto-Board, Careycel, Careyclad, Carey-Duct, Careyflex, Careysote, Careystone, Careytemp, Cedargrain, Cellamite, Cell-O-Tone, Cemesto, Cemesto StructUrals Insulating Panels, Centripac, Century, Century Apac, Certain-teed, Chemlon, Chempac, Chemstone, Chemtite, Chesterton Sixty Four, Chesterton 1000, Chroma Tex, Chroma-Tone, Chrom-Tex, Cleangard, Cogasa, Cohrlastic, Colonial Stone, Colorbestos, Color Ground, Colorlith, Color-Tex, Contico, Copperclad, Coronet, Covergard, Crystal White, Cutno, CW, Deltabeston, Designer Solids, Doublex, Double Sand Asbestos, Dualay, DuraColor, Duraform, Durocell, Du Shield, Ebonized Asbestos, Electrobestos, Enduro, Eternit, Eternit Stonewall, Excelon, Facespan, Featherweight, Felbestos, FI-CS, Fiberock, Fiberock Asbestos Felt, Fibershake, Fiberspray Asbestos, Fibra Flo, Fibre Coating Asbestos, Fibre Kote, Fibrocel, Fibro-Cel, Fibrofil, Fibro-Fill, Firboid, Fibroid Stovy Putty, Fil-Insul, Filpaco, Fire-Chex, Fireclad, Fire Felt, Firegard, Firegard Jacketing, Fire Halt, Firetard, Flamemaster, Flamegard, Flamesafe, Flexachrome, Flexboard, Flexgold, Flex-Slate, Flexstone, Flintite, Fluorobestos, FMC, F.O.P., Form Pack 2, Foster, Frost Proof, GAF, Guardian Line, Gardwell, Gardwell Products, Glatex, Goetze Metallic Gaskets, Gold Bond, Grafil, Gralam, Grizzly, G.T. Ring, Gum-Bestos, Herco, Hi Seal, Hoodex-22, Hopaco, Hornblende, Hy Temp, Imperial, Imperial Excelon, Imoerial Pipe Covering, Industrial, Industro-Tile, Insulation Seal 820, Insulcolor, Isobestos, Janobestos, Janos, Jewett, JM, Johns-Manville, Koabestos, Kaylo, Kearsarge, K-Fac, Klingerit, K&M Aircell, Kormetal, K Therm, Lasco, Linabestos, LK, LO-CA, Lok-Tab, Marinite, Mastic, Maticove, McKim, Microbestos, Mightyplate, Mimco, Minkote, Modernaire, Monobestos, Monoblock, Montasite, Multi-Ply, Mundet, New Era, Niagrite, Nicolet, Non-ConDux, Noriscell, Novasbestos, Nu Grain, Nu Side, Nu Way, Ohmstone, ONC, One Cote Cement, Pabco, Pakmetal, Pal-lite, Palmetto, Palmetto Cutno, Palmetto Super Sheat, Pamco, Panelstone, Permaboard, Permatherm, Permatone, Piedra, Plastic, Plastibes t, Pliaboard, Plas tiC la d, Plastcrylic, Plia-F-Lex, Pluto, Portugese Asbestos, Powminco, Prasco High Temperature, Prenite, Prismatic, Profile, Pyrotex Felt, Q-Beston, Quinorgo, Quinterra, Ranch Style, Red Mastite, Rendezvous, Resistal, Ring-Tite, Ripple Tone, RM,
Raybestos Manhattan, RM 7504, R/M 24 H120, R/M E-66, Roca, Rockl Slate, Romanaire, Rondelle, 3 R, Salamander, Salon, Sal-Mo, Scandia, Sea Ring Packing, Selko-Flo, Service Sheet Packing & Cut Gaskets, Shasta Snow, Sheeflexos, Shingle Seal, Simco, Sindanyo, Soundguard, Spintex, Sprioflex, Spirotallic, Splashguard, Spray-Cote, Spray Craft, Sprayed “Limpet” Asbestos, Sta Safe Long Life, Sterlbestos, Stik-On, Stone Chip, Stoneglow, Stonewall, Stratate, Stri-color, StripN-Lay, Summit, Superbestos, Super Cutno, Superheat, Super X, Super 66, Supradur, SureStik, Sylodex, Tadpole, Target, Tempcheck, Terraflex, Thermal Kote, Thermalon, Thermatite, Thermo-Bord, Thermofelt, Therm-O-Flake, Thermoflex, Thermomat, Thermo-Pac, Thermostone, Thermo-Tape, Thermotex B, Thermo-Wrap, Thrift-T, ThruChip, Tile-Tex, Tilostone TK 33, Transhield, Transite, Transite-Korduct, Transitop, Tru Flame, Tropag, U.F.P., Ultra-Fine, Unibestos, Unoibestos 750, Unibestos 1200, Uni Syn, Uni Syn Style No 239, Dent, Ventsulation, Victopac, Vitribestos, Vitrobestos, Vulc-Dek, Weldgard, White Top Asbestos Jacket, White Tope, Whittacker, Wirepak, Woodflex, York Asbestos, Zerogloss, Zepinkal, Zetabond, Zip Stik, 0-0-7-9, 0-0-10-6, No 60 Service Sheet, 99 Finishing Cement, No 100 Kearsarge Sheet, No 101 Mobilene Sheet, Grade 115 Cement, No 116 Kearsage Cement, No 118 Keasarge Gaskets, Grade 214 Cement, No 302 Insulation Cement, 303 Asbestos Cement, 707 Asbestos Cement.



Mg3((OH)4/Si2O5) .


The general formula of the amphiboles is
AB1.5-2.5C((OH,F)/Si4O11), with
A= Na, Ca, Mg, Li, Mn, Fe2+
B= Mg, Fe2+, Fe3+, Al, Ti, Mn, Cr, Li, Zn
C= Al, Fe3+, Si.
The trace elements in all asbestos “minerals” are Ni, Cr, Co, and Mn. The ions can be substituted, leading to a few mixed crystal systems:
cummingtonite and grunerite (Mg,Fe)7(OH/Si4O11)
tremolite and actinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe)5((OH,F)/Si4O11)
riebeckite and magnesio-riebeckite Na2(Mg,Fe)3Fe3+2((OH,F)/Si4O11)
magnesio-riebeckite and glaukophane Na2Mg3Al2((OH,F)/Si4O11)
with crossite Na2Mg3(Al,Fe3+)2((OH,F)/Si4O11)
edenite-ferroedenite NaCa2(Mg,Fe)5((OH,F)/AlSi7O22)
pargasite-hastingsite NaCa2(Mg,Fe)4(Al,Fe3+)((OH,F)/Al2Si6O22)
tschermakite-ferrotschermakite Ca2(Mg,Fe)3(Al,Fe3+)2((OH,F)/Al2Si6O22) .
Other minerals belonging to the amphiboles and described under their corresponding headings are named: arfvedsonite, barroisite, dannemorite, eckermannite, gedrite, grunerite, holmquistite, kozulite, nephrite, richterite, and tirodite.


Chrysotile: Silicon is tetrahedrally surrounded by four oxygen atoms, and hexagonal rings are created by six tetrahedra. These rings are linked to layers. All apices of the tetrahedra are arranged in one direction. They share the edges of octahedra, which are bound with one triangle side to the apical oxygen atoms of the tetrahedra. Only four of the six octahedral oxygen atoms are binding atoms, two are not bound. Magnesium atoms surround the octahedra and form the second layer. Compared to aluminum atoms, magnesium has a larger diameter. Therefore, the cell distances of the octahedral layers are not identical with those of the tetrahedral layers. In nature, there are two possibilities for the creation of crystals with these two differing sheets: a) to create a waving form by alternation of the two sheets. This is performed in the antigorit e structure. b) to curve the sheets. This is performed in the chrysotil e structure, containing a tetrahedral layer at the inner side. The inner diameter measures 18nm, the external diameter 34 nm. The wall itself has a thickness of 8 nm, and is formed by ten double-sheets. Amphiboles: The silicon and aluminum atoms containing oxygen tetrahedra are linked and form chains. Two of these chains are bonded, respectively, and form a double chain, which is built by rings of six-membered tetrahedra. Two tetrahedra belong to the two neighboring rings, respectively, and only two of them to the ring itself. The chains can be described by the chemical formula (Si4O11)n. The separated chains are bonded by cations and partially by hydroxyl ions. In relation to the diameter of the bonding cations, the structure is deviated from ideal orthorhombic structure, if it contains smaller cations. A monoclinic structure results, if it contains larger cations such as Ca, Na or K.
The various minerals can be distinguished by infrared spectroscopy (wavelength in cm-1):

Mineral O-H Si-O Silicate Cation
Stretching Stretching Chain oxygen
vibration vibration vibration streching vibration
Chrysotile 3700, 3655, 1080 1030, 965 610, 438, 410, 305
Anthophyllite 3680, 3675, 980 1095, 1020 780, 755, 712, 670 495, 455
Amosite 3660, 3640, 3620 1129, 1085, 890, 1000 775, 700, 636 500, 480, 426, 330
Crocidolite 3655, 3640, 3620 1145, 1110,995, 898, 880 780, 695, 635 545, 505, 450, 320
Tremolite 3680, 3670 1105, 1065, 998, 950, 922 755, 685 508, 461, 390, 360
Actinolite 3680, 3670 1100, 1040, 998, 953, 922 758, 685 510, 460

The surface characters of asbestos minerals depend on their chemical composition:

Mineral Zeta-potential Zeta-potential
at pH=11.8 at neutral pH
Chrysotile isoelectric point +100 mV
Crocidolite 10 mV
Amosite 20 mV

Crystallographic Constants:

As listed under specific headings.

Crystal Group:

As listed under specific headings.


As listed under specific headings.

Optical Properties:

As listed under specific headings.


As listed under specific headings.

Powder Diagram:

As listed under specific headings.

Natural Sources:

Chrysotile is mined predominantly in Canada, Cyprus, Italy, the USA, Russia, Yugoslavia and Zimbabwe; Crocidolite predominantly in Australia, Bolivia, RSA and Zimbabwe; Amosite in India and RSA; Anthophyllite in Finland and the USA; Actinolite in India and RSA; Tremolite in Italy, Pakistan, Turkey, and South Korea.

Medical Importance:

Key Hazards:

Fibrogenic, carcinogenic.

Involved Organs:

Lung, pleura, upper respiratory tract, peritoneum, lymphatic system, skin, reproductive system, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, bile duct.


The use of asbestos fibers was already described by the Romans and other ancient societies, who wove asbestos clothes used for ceremonies and cremation (China, Egypt). At later times, the russian emperor Peter the Great founded a factory for the production of asbestos textiles. Asbestos or asbestos containing materials are used in mining, ship-building industries, milling, manufacturing of asbestos products, heat-resistance, electrical insulation, pipe fitters, boiler makers, building manufacturers, fire-smothering blankets, safety garrets, fillers in plastic materials or cement, in floor tiles, and brakes. In addition to mining exposure, a short-term “passive” exposure has been described leading to asbestos related cancer, especially mesotheliomas; a) social exposure (e.g.: a housewife washing her husband’s working clothes), and b) environmental exposure (e.g.: persons living in the neighborhood of an asbestos plant).
Rural asbestos soils have been reported to induce health problems in the following countries: Bulgaria, Canada (Quebec), Corsica, Cyprus, Finland, Greece, New Caledonia, and Turkey. The hazards for various diseases is related to the asbestos levels of the specific occupations, and the physical properties of the inhaled asbestos fibers with their technical use:

Quebec Standard (Chrysotile)

Length Technical use
1 crude >19 mm Insulation material
2 crude 9.5-19 mm Textile, packing material
3 spinning 6-9.5 mm Brakes middle
4 cement 3-6 mm Cement
5 paper Paper, brakes
6 paper <3 mm Cement, PVC, brakes small
7 shorts <3 mm Brakes, plastics, filling material
8 non specified Bitumen, filling material very short
9 non specified Bitumen, filling material
In the USA, approximately 9.1 million workers had professional exposure to asbestiform fibers in 1980. The number of passive exposed persons (bystanders) may be double. The prevalence of asbestosis has been estimated to 6-25% of exposed workers and depends upon the number of years of exposure and the asbestos concentration in the air. The incidence of asbestos induced mesothelioma ranges from 3/100 000 (the USA) -800/100 000 (Turkish villages, erionite-induced). In addition, persons living in the neighborhood of asbestos factories have an increased risk of mesothelioma compared to that of the general population. Chrysotile asbestos is the most common mined asbestos (95% of the world production (6 million tons)).


The maximum number of asbestos fibers in the lung tissue have been measured to 4 000 000 fbrs/gram. The fiber concentration in the air is limited as follows:
Germany (TRK): 250 000 fibers/m3 (Chrysotile, Amosite, Anthophyllite, Tremolite, Actinolite).
Technical use prohibited after 1995.
UK: 0.5 fiber/ml air (chrysotile), 0.2 fiber/ml air
(amosite, crocidolite).
USA: NIOSH: 0.1 fibers/m3 (8 hours shift, fibers >5 µm in length).


Depending on the chemical nature and the physical properties of the ore, fibers of different size and shape are formed during the production of asbestos (e.g. medium size of crocidolite: 0.03-1.2 µm, amosite: 0.1-1.5 µm, anthophyllite: 0.25-2.5 µm). Due to the different specific weight of these 3 fiber types, crocidolite fibers outnumber the other two types per unit weight, and crocidolite fibers will remain in dust clouds for the longest time. Chrysotile fibers are individual fibrils of 280 Ångstrom (mean value) in diameter. They tend to aggregate. Because of their curliness (“corkscrew”-like) they have a greater aerodynamic diameter, and tend to be deposited at the bifurcations of the large airways. Amphibole asbestos is weakly cytotoxic, opposite to chrysotile which is strongly cytotoxic.
After inhalation the asbestos fibres are deposited in the central bronchial system (predominantly chrysotile), or in distant airways (predominantly amphibole asbestos ), depending on the diameter of fibrils. The mucociliary clearing system expels two thirds of the inhaled fibers. The cell wall of the macrophages is damaged and lysosomes are released during the phagocytosis of asbestos fibers. Chemotactic factors released by the damaged macrophages induce the sequestration of lymphocytes and granulocytes. Finally, fibroblasts are activated and produce collagen.
The result is a diffuse damage of the lung parenchyma. A distinct correlation between the fiber type and the resultant fibrosis is not known; however, exposure to chrysotile seems to be not as dangerous as blue asbestos . Additional factors of influence are the length of the fibers (they are more dangerous if they are longer than 10 µm), and the diameter of the fibers (they are more dangerous if <0.25 µm). The resistance of the fibers to digestion depends on their mineralogical nature: amphibole asbestos is accumulated after inhalation, chrysotile asbestos is split into smaller fibrils, which are more resistant to ingestion by macrophages or transportation by the mucociliary clearing system. Chrysotile is not accumulated. The transport mechanism of the fibrils to the pleura is not known. A direct transport through the alveolar membranes or the lymphatics has been proposed.
Details of the carcinogenic potency are not known; however, asbestos fibers seem to promote the epithelial cells of the lung parenchyma to transform into tumor cells if exposed to other carcinogenic substances. The incomplete phagocytosis releases superoxide radicals. Superoxide was found to be mutagenic and carcinogenic by its reaction with the DNA in experimental systems. The direct interference between the asbestos fibers and the plasmalemma can damage the cell membrane. The Mg ions of the asbestos fibers seem to play a role in these interactions. Different surface charges may be the result of a close contact between the mineral fibers and the cellular macromolecules. The contact may induce an increased electron transfer. The immuno-defence system is probably involved, and increased levels of inter-leukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor have been reported.
Important carcinogens are fibers measuring <0.25 µm in diameter and <8 µm in length. Chrysotile can induce tissue necrosis, whereas amphibole asbestos initiate a foreign-giant cell reaction. In mesodermal cells it may produce chronic irritation, which causes an increased cell turnover; however, a putative carcinogen promoted by asbestos is not known.
The carcinogenic potency for mesothelioma and lung cancer is as follows (in descending order): a) erionite, which is a zeolite, induces only mesothelioma (see under the heading erionite), b) crocidolite, c) tremolite, d) amosite, e) chrysotile. Pleural plaques are more frequently seen in persons exposed to erionite (see there) (Turkey), tremolite (Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, France), and anthophyllite (Finland, Bulgaria).
The lung cancer rate is closely related to the amount of inhaled asbestos fibers, in contrast to the rate of mesothelioma. Asbestos increases the cancer risk of persons exposed to other carcinogens (cocarcinogenic, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons): If the relative risk of lung cancer in non-smokers is set at 1, it increases in smokers to 10, and in smoking asbestos workers to 70. The mutagenic activity of asbestos is non-existent or weak. In the lung, the fibers can be coated by a ferroprotein complex (ferruginous bodies or asbestos bodies). Fibers entering the alveoli induce a local hemorrhage. The hemolyzed erythrocytes release hemoglobin, which is converted into hemosiderin granules. Hemosiderin is ingested by macrophages, which produce a ferroprotein in their cytoplasm. This complex is deposited on the asbestos fiber located in the macrophage. The process is performed within 16 days.
All types of asbestos fibers can be coated; however, predominantly amphibole asbestos fibers are transferred into asbestos bodies. The so called pseudo-asbestos bodies are created after an exposure to nonasbestos fibers (e.g. carbon). The pathogenesis of abdominal mesothelioma is not known. Animal studies (rats) performed with radioactive crocidolite revealed that 20-25% of the inhaled fibers were eliminated by the faeces (mucociliary clearing system) in the first week, followed by a smaller excretion rate in the next weeks. Secondary oils (containing carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) may be involved in the carcinogenesis as a result of asbestos contamination during processing: samples with 5-20 mg of organic substance/100 g fibers have been reported.

Lung Diseases:

Asbestos induced alterations include diffuse interstitial fibrosis, pleural effusions, pleural plaque, pleural fibrosis, lung cancer (all cell types), and mesothelioma.

Clinical Presentation:

Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, loss of weight loss and chest pain. Lung cancer usually develops 15-19 years after exposure. The clinical course does not differ from that of nonexposed persons. Mesotheliomas usually occur 20-25 years (maximum peak 30-35 years) after even weak exposure. The main symptoms are pleural effusion, chest pain, loss of weight, and dyspnea.


Asbestos induces round irregular or linear opacities, which are classified according to the ILO


as s, t, u, 1, 2, and 3. The shadows lie predominantly in the lower lung fields, and there is an indistinct heart border (“shaggy heart sign”). The costophrenic angle may be obliterated, and dense plaques are seen on the diaphragm, parietal pleura, or cardiac border. Large opacities (>1 cm in diameter) are rare, usually calcified, and predominantly in lower lung fields. Mesothelioma patients present with associated findings like pleural effusion, weak to cloudy pleural thickening or pleural plaques, which may be also seen contralaterally. Nodular thickening of the pleura is seen in advanced stages. Computerized tomography displays subpleural curveline or shadows.

Lung Function:

The lung function may be heavily disturbed. Lung fibrosis induces a restrictive alteration. Blood-gas analysis may show decreased levels on exercise in early stages, whereas the lung compliance is decreased in advanced stages. Obstructive changes can exist in addition.

Bronchoalveolar Lavage:

BAL shows an increased number of all cells, relatively increased number of T-helper cells and an increased ratio T-helper/ T-suppressor cells. B-lymphocytes in blood are decreased and ferroginious bodies are found in BAL, whereas there is only a weak correlation with the degree of the disease.



Pleural effusions are usually transparent and yellowish. Bloody tinged effusions can be observed. Pleural plaques present with dense, partly calcified nodules of irregular shape. They are often bilateral and measure from several millimeters up to several centimeters in maximum diameter. Adhesions between the pleura visceralis and the pleura parietalis are induced by secondary inflammatory infiltrates. Fibrotic lungs show multiple fibrotic bundles of grayish-white color, enlarged distant air spaces and honeycombing. Mesotheliomas are of yellowish color and show small areas of hemorrhage and viscous mucus. Asbestos-related lung carcinomas have the same appearance as nonasbestos-associated carcinomas.


Asbestos fibers are usually not found in pleural effusions. Severe atypias of mesothelial cells including mitoses can be seen. Inflammatory cells are present but not numerous. Pleural plaques consist of acellular hyaline material and collagenous fibers with “basket-weave” pattern. Some histiocytes and fibroblasts can be seen. Asbestos fibers are usually absent. Asbestos-associated pulmonary fibrosis presents with a diffuse pattern related to the interalveolar septae. Focal scarring and collections of mononuclear interstitial inflammatory cells may occur. Asbestos fibers are most frequently observed in the distant air spaces. Some of them are phagocytosed by macrophages. Ferruginous bodies usually lie in the peribronchiolar alveoli, but may also be seen in macrophages and within the interstitial tissue. Asbestos-associated mesotheliomas are most frequently from the diffuse epithelial or mixed epithelial-sarcomatous type. Asbestos-associated bronchial carcinomas include all four major cell types, i.e. adenocarcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, large-cell anaplastic carcinoma and small-cell anaplastic carcinoma.


Prognosis of patients with massive and long lasting exposure is poor due to serious sequelae. The five-year survival rate of lung cancer patients is 10%; the median survival of mesothelioma patients is a few months.

Additional Diseases:

Pleural effusion:

Pleural effusion is common in pleural mesothelioma (malignant effusion). It is often seen after exposure to asbestos and, if it resolves spontaneously, is called benign effusion. Benign effusion may result in diffuse pleural fibrosis or in mesothelioma.

Pleural plaque:

Accellular and avascular pleural plaques are usually seen bilaterally, starting in the lower parts of the pleura parietalis. They are related to a long (>20 years) and heavy exposure to asbestos fibers of all types (predominantly anthophyllite).

Pleural fibrosis:

Diffuse thickening and fibrosis of the pleura is normally seen in combination with lung fibrosis. It is associated with all types of asbestos fibers; however, not necessarily with heavy exposure.


Heavy exposure of asbestos induces warts, which are a rare and benign skin lesion.


Mesotheliomas of the testis (epiorchium, periorchium) associated with exposure to asbestos have been reported.


Carcinoma of the larynx is possibly induced by asbestos ; however, detailed epidemiological data do not exist.

Gastrointestinal Tract:

All gastrointestinal tumors possibly can be induced by asbestos .


Mesothelioma of the peritoneum is closely associated with exposure to asbestos .


Renal cancer (all cell types) can be induced by asbestos .


Cancer arising from the bile-duct was found to be related to crocidolite exposure.

Lymphatic System:

Lymphoma can be induced by crocidolite.

Female Reproductive System:

Ovarian cancer and breast cancer are probably related to asbestos exposure.

Immune System:

Persons heavily exposed to asbestos present with hypergammaglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor, and antinuclear antibodies.

Caplan’s Syndrome:

Some cases of asbestos workers with rheumatoid arthritis and characteristic lung findings have been described.


Silico-asbestosis is infrequently seen and a typical example of a mixed-dust pneumoconiosis.

Fibrosis of the Upper Lobe:

Fibrosis of the upper lobe is often seen in South-African asbestosis patients. A correlation with tuberculosis does not exist. The pathogenesis of the disease is not known.


Zentrale Erfassungsstelle asbeststaubgefährdeter Arbeitnehmer bei der Textilund Bekleidungs-Berufsgenossensschaft Postfach 10 00 95, D-8900 Augsburg Tel: 0821-3159-294. Fiber reference samples: Union Internationale Contre Cancer, Geneva, Switzerland.


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