Silicosis or silicosis-like pulmonary changes have been seen in miners of different ores (e.g antimony, lead, copper, manganese). It is induced by contaminating silica. Many reports have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in underground miners, in some cases associated with exposure to radon. These cases develop lung cancer more often in the lower lung regions, as opposed to silicosis-associated lung cancer which is seen more frequently in the upper lobes. Additional associated carcinogens are asbestos , arsenic, or secondary pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (diesel exhaust).


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Ahlman K, Koskela RS, Kuikka P, Koponen M, Annamaki M: Mortality among sulfide ore miners. Am J Ind Med 119 (1991) 603-617
Amandus H, Costello J: Silicosis and lung cancer in US metal miners. Arch Environ Health 46 (1991) 82-89
Axelson O: Occupational and environmental exposures to radon: cancer risks. Annu Rev Public Health 12 (1991) 235-255
Belli S, Comba P, Germani D, Grignoli M, Lagorio S, Paganoni R, Ronchin M: Mortality among lead-zinc miners in Val Seriana. Med Lav 80 (1989) 467-478
Blot WJ: Lung cancer and occupational exposures. In: M Mizell, P Correa (Eds): Lung cancer: causes and prevention. Verlag Chemie Int, Weinheim (1984) 47-64
Cullen MR, Baloyi RS: Prevalence of pneumoconiosis among coal and heavy metal miners in Zimbabwe. Am J Ind Med 17 (1990) 677-682
Elghany NA, Schumacher MC, Slattery ML, West DW, Lee JS: Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer. Epidemiology 1 (1990) 107-115
Ebihara I, Shinokawa E, Kurosawa T: A retrospective cohort mortality study of copper miners. J Sci Lab 67 81991) 7-13
Fabrikant JI: Radon and lung cancer: the BEIR IV Report. Health Phys 59 (1990) 89-97
Hessel PA, Sluis-Cremer GK, Lee SL: Distribution of silicotic collagenization in relation to smoking habits. Am Rev Respir Dis 144 (1991) 297-301
Hodgson JT, Jones RD: Mortality of a cohort of tin miners 1941-86. Br J Ind Med 47 (1990) 665-676
IARC: Cancer: causes, occurrence and control. IARC Sci Publ 100 (1990)
Jin KW: Pathological survey of lung cancer induced by tin mine dust in Yunnan. Chung Hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih 18 (1989) 204-206
Kayser K: Analytical Lung Pathology. Springer, Heidelberg, New York (1992)
Kreiss K, Greenberg L, Irvin CG, LaBreeque J, Cherniak RM: Respiratory abnormalities of herdrock miners at 3100 meters. Chest 91 (1987) 307
Kusiak RA, Springer J, Ritchie AC, Muller J: Carcinoma of the lung in Ontario gold miners: possible aetiological factors. Br J Ind Med 48 (1991) 808-817
Manfreda J, Johnston B: Longitudinal study of Lung Function in employees of the mining industry. Chest 91 (1987) 308
Qiao YL, Taylor PR, Yao SX, Schatzkin A, Mao BL, Lubin J, Rao JY, McAdams M, Xuan XZ, Li JY: Relation of radon exposure and tobacco use to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China. Am J Ind Med 16 (1989) 511-521
Pham QT, Chau N, Patris A, Trombert B, Henquel JC, Geny M, Teculescu D: Prospective mortality study among iron miners. Cancer Detect Prev 15 (1991) 449-454
Reger RB, Morgan WKC: Respiratory cancers in mining. Occup Med 8 (1993) 185-204
Reichel G: Die Pneumokoniosen im Erzbergbau. In: WT Ulmer (Ed): Handbuch der inneren Medizin IVa: Pneumokoniosen. Springer, Heidelberg (1977)
Roberts RS, Julian JA, Muir DC, Shannon HS: A study of mortality in workers engaged in the mining, smelting, and refining of nickel. II: Mortality from cancer of the respiratory tract and kidney. Toxicol Ind Health 5 (1989) 975-993
Roscoe RJ, Steenland K, Halperin WE, Beaumont JJ, Waxweiler RJ: Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters. JAMA 262 (1989) 629-633
Samet JM: Radon and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81 (1989) 745-757
Samet JM, Pathak DR, Morgan MV, Key CR, Valdivia AA, Lubin JH: Lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon progeny in a cohort of New Mexico underground uranium miners. Health Phys 61 (1991) 745-752
Shannon HS, Walsh C, Jadon N, Julian JA, Weglo JK, Thornhill PG, Cecutti AG: Mortality of 11,500 nickel workers-extended follow up and relationship to environmental conditions. Toxicol Ind Health 7 (1991) 277-294
Shi ZT: Report of a lung cancer survey in Hunan realgar miners. Chung Hua Chieh Ho Ho Hu Hsi Tsa Chih 12 (1989) 230-231, 255-256
Solli HM, Andersen A, Stranden E, Langard S: Cancer incidence among workers exposed to radon and thoron daughters at a niobium mine. Scand J Work Environ Health 11 (1985) 7-13
Taylor PR, Qiao YL, Schatzkin A, Yao SX, Lubin J, Mao BL, Rao JY, McAdams M, Xuan XZ, Li JY: Relation of arsenic exposure to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China. Br J Ind Med 46 (1989) 881-886
Tomasek L, Darby SC, Swerdlow AJ, Placek V, Kunz E: Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer among uranium miners in West Bohemia. Lancet 341 (1993) 919-923
Vacek PM, McDonald JC: Risk assessment using exposure intensity: an application to vermiculite mining. Br J Ind Med 48 (1991) 543-547
Vahakangas KH, Samet JM, Metcalf RA, Welsh JA, Bennett WP, Lane DP, Harris CC: Mutations of p53 and ras genes in radon-associated lung cancer from uranium miners. Lancet 339 (1992) 576-80
Vich Z, Dienstbier Z: Risks of malignant neoplasms in workers in Czechoslovak uranium mines. Sb Lek 93 (1991) 227-231
Voisin C, Wallaert B: Occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease. Et i o patho g en ic ap pro ach to the p r ob lem of compensation in the mining environment. Bull Acad Natl Med 176 (1992) 243-252
Wergeland E, Andersen A, Baerheim A: Morbidity and mortality in talc-exposed workers. Am J Ind Med 17 (1990) 505-513
Woodward A, Roder D, McMichael AJ, Crouch P, Mylvaganam A: Radon daughter exposures at the Radium Hill uranium mine and lung cancer rates among former workers, 1952-87. Cancer Causes Control 2 (1991) 213-220
Wu KG: Analysis of conditional logistic regression for risk factors of lung cancer in Dachang Tin Mine. Chung Hua Chung Liu Tsa Chih 11 (1989) 124-126
Wu KG, Fu H, Mo CZ, Yu LZ: Smelting, underground mining, smoking, and lung cancer: a case-control study in a tin mine area. Biomed Environ Sci 2 (1989) 98-105
Xuan XZ, Schatzkin A, Mao BL, Taylor PR, Li JY, Tangrea J, Yao SX, Qiao YL, Giffen C, McAdams M: F easib ility of co nd ucting a lun g -can ce r chemoprevention trial among tin miners in Yunnan, PR China. Cancer Causes Control 2 (1991) 175-182