Development of Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in Pathology
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is an emerging technology in the biomedical field and enables us to analyze 3D structures non-destructively and observe these structures in various directions, thus enabling innovation in this area of pathology. However, application of micro-CT for medicine has just started and optimization per purpose has not yet been done. The purpose of this study is to 1) demonstrate the potential utility of micro-CT in pathology; 2) optimize micro-CT imaging technology and develop a standard operating protocol and; 3) investigate whether micro-CT incurs any radiation damage to pathological tissue samples. The samples of fresh tissue, formalin fixed tissue and formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks were scanned using a custom-built Nikon Metrology micro-CT system with a variety of parameters then evaluated with histology correlation in detail. Radiation damage to tissue samples was also evaluated. Through our study, we have established the scanning protocol and workflow for each type of sample. For fresh/fixed tissue, the house made polystyrene foam container was most ideal and the scanning time for fresh tissue was six minutes at as shortest, in which it is possible to detect neoplastic lesions in the tissue. In case of FFPE blocks, 10 - 17 hours scanned images were corresponding with histology specimens in 4-10x under the microscope.
Regarding radiation damage to protein expression, no impact was found.
Micro-CT imaging of tissue specimens can be of clinical utility in fresh, formalin fixed tissues and FFPE blocks We also found many additional valuable uses of micro-CT images in translational research.
2. Sarraj WM, Tang R, Najjar AL, Griffin M, Bui AH, Zambeli-Ljepovic A, Senter-Zapata M, Lewin-Berlin M, Fernandez L, Buckley J, Ly A, Brachtel E, Aftreth O, Gilbertson J, Yagi Y, Gadd M, Hughes KS, Smith BL, Michaelson JS. Prediction of primary breast cancer size and T-stage using micro-computed tomography in lumpectomy specimens. Journal of pathology informatics. 2015;6:60.
3. Merrill AL, Buckley J, Tang R, Brachtel E, Rai U, Michaelson J, Ly A, Specht MC, Yagi Y, Smith BL. A Study of the Growth Patterns of Breast Carcinoma Using 3D Reconstruction: A Pilot Study. The breast journal. 2017;23(1):83-9.
4. Senter-Zapata M, Patel K, Bautista PA, Griffin M, Michaelson J, Yagi Y. The Role of Micro-CT in 3D Histology Imaging. Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology. 2016;83(2-3):140-.
5. Teng TY. Mounting of Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography in a Freestanding Thin-Film. J Appl Crystallogr. 1990;23:387-91.
6. Scott AE, Vasilescu DM, Seal KA, Keyes SD, Mavrogordato MN, Hogg JC, Sinclair I, Warner JA, Hackett TL, Lackie PM. Three dimensional imaging of paraffin embedded human lung tissue samples by micro-computed tomography. PloS one. 2015;10(6):e0126230.
7. Jones MG, Fabre A, Schneider P, Cinetto F, Sgalla G, Mavrogordato M, Jogai S, Alzetani A, Marshall BG, O'Reilly KM, Warner JA, Lackie PM, Davies DE, Hansell DM, Nicholson AG, Sinclair I, Brown KK, Richeldi L. Three-dimensional characterization of fibroblast foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. JCI Insight. 2016;1(5).
8. Hashimoto N, Bautista PA, Haneishi H, Snuderl M, Yagi Y. Development of a 2D Image Reconstruction and Viewing System for Histological Images from Multiple Tissue Blocks: Towards High-Resolution Whole-Organ 3D Histological Images. Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology. 2016;83(2-3):127-39.
9. Onozato ML, Klepeis VE, Yagi Y, Mino-Kenudson M. A role of three-dimensional (3D)-reconstruction in the classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2012;35(2):79-84.
10. Mieog JS, van der Hage JA, van de Velde CJ. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2007;94(10):1189-200.
11. Perlmutter J, Axler S, Baas C, Beckwith BJ, Bonoff A, Brain S, Delapine M, Devine M, Frank E, Fraser V, Gallece M, Geoghegan C, Hamade H, Heditsian D, Hirschhorn B, Kandell S, Laxague D, Lestage B, Lyzen M, Madden D, Mertz SA, Parker BJ, Roach N, Sauers N, Vincent L, Waddell D, Wetzel M, Wright K. Advocates' perspective: neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(36):4586-8; author reply 8-9.
12. Houssami N, Macaskill P, von Minckwitz G, Marinovich ML, Mamounas E. Meta-analysis of the association of breast cancer subtype and pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(18):3342-54.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
4. In case of virtual slide publication the authors agree to copy the article in a structural modified version to the journal's VS archive.